At Warren, we frequently investigate losses involving industrial machinery. Many of the losses involve workplace injuries, fires, or explosions; however, we also analyze industrial machinery and processes for other types of problems. For example, we analyze failures of machinery or industrial processes to perform as expected or disputes that arise from the commercial supply and construction of such systems. This can encompass a range of issues from failure to achieve required levels of product quality or production quantity, to matters concerning unclear specifications or contracts, (more…)
Heavy machinery fires are often caused by hydraulic hose failures. Pressurized hydraulic fluid escaping from a failed hose assembly can be atomized into a fine spray that can be ignited by heated engine surfaces such as the engine exhaust or turbocharger.
Hydraulic hoses near the engine compartment of an excavator that burned.
Hydraulic hoses often fail due to age and wear, requiring regular inspection and replacement of hydraulic hoses to prevent failures. Hoses may also fail if they are misrouted. Misrouting can lead to the hose being pinched or causing it to chafe against a sharp metal surface.(more…)
The facts presented in this blog lead to an interesting story. During the heyday of the residential construction boom in coastal South Carolina circa 2005, many General Contractors were forced to go out-of-state to find framers and other subcontractors due to the demand creating a local labor shortage. It turned out that the state of Texas had excess capacity and availability of framers and carpenters. Many Texas framing crews came to South Carolina to satisfy the shortage. It soon became apparent that the Texas crews, many of which were from inland locations, were accustomed to installing 4’x8’ exterior wall sheathing with the long dimension vertical, i.e., parallel to the studs. It is especially important and required that the long dimension be oriented perpendicular to the studs. Laboratory testing has shown that (more…)
Construction using concrete masonry blocks or units (CMU) is ubiquitous in the United States today, and in fact in the whole modern world. CMU blockwork is a very versatile and relatively economical building material. It is naturally strong in compression, but with reinforced, grout-filled cells, it can also withstand large shear, bending, and tensile loads imparted by lateral wind or seismic events. In this article, I will discuss the various types of CMU designs, as well as terminology, construction techniques, and application uses.
The design of CMU is typically comprised of hollow concrete “face shells” with (more…)
Hurricane and Tropical Storm strength wind forces can wreak havoc on wood-framed residential structures. One of the primary hazards is the negative pressures which can develop on the exterior building envelope when the structure is subjected to the high encircling winds. These negative pressures act like the suction of a giant vacuum on a dwelling’s roof diaphragm, which produces enormous uplift forces throughout the entire structure. The leeward walls are also subjected to negative pressures, while the windward walls take the brunt of the positive wind pressures. The uplift on the roof is caused by what the author dubs “the airplane wing effect”. In other words, (more…)
Distillation is a method of separating mixtures of compounds with differing boiling points. Uncle Bill with his still on the hill separates ethanol, that boils at 173°F, from water that boils at 212°F. If the mixture is heated to above 173°F, but below 212°F, the ethanol will boil, the vapor will travel up out of the unit and then can be condensed and served over ice with an olive… Any mixture of two or more chemicals with different boiling points can be separated in this way. The distillation (more…)
HVAC systems are almost everywhere in the United States now. As a life-long resident of the humid south that grew up in a home without central air conditioning; I definitely appreciate the ability of a well-designed and maintained HVAC system to remove the oppressive summer humidity.
The very humidity that makes your clothes damp with sweat and hastened the invention of cooled leather seats in automobiles also has another route to create havoc…condensate.
In order for an HVAC or “air-conditioning system” to reduce the humidity in the air of your home or office it must first cool the air down to a point where the air can no longer keep the moisture in suspension as water vapor. The moisture must condense… creating condensate. This is what is happening when your cool beverage of choice “sweats” on the exterior of the container in the humid summer. Now that you have liquid water, as opposed to water vapor, this condensate must be directed out of your conditioned space to prevent water damage due to backed up or leaking condensate. (more…)
The Kraft paper process was invented in 1879 and produces a stronger finished product that other paper manufacturing methods. One of the waste streams is known as black liquor and is a mixture of solids and water. It contains lignin, hemicelluloses and chemicals used in the pulping process. The original process had no use for this harmful waste stream and it was dumped into nearby waterways, to their detriment!!! Mr. G.H. Tomlinson invented the recovery boiler in the early 1930’s. This development made the Kraft process the manufacturing method of choice, as explained below. (more…)
From corrosion to site drainage, coastal regions present a host of unique and challenging issues for homebuilders and residential property owners alike. In this article, issues specific to coastal residential foundation installation and in-service function will be addressed. “Coastal residential” will refer to single-family homes within AE or VE tidal flood zones for the purposes herein. These locations typically exist in areas with close proximity to saltmarsh or beachfront, or on barrier sea islands. Per FEMA, in AE zones, the elevation of the first finished floor must be above the flood elevation for the building site. In VE zones, the elevation of the lowest horizontal structural member must be above the flood elevation for the site. Most building jurisdictions also require a minimum of (1) foot of freeboard, or additional space, between the flood elevation and these building features. As a result of these requirements, coastal residential structures must be supported by either crawl-space or elevated “drive-under” style foundations. It should be noted that wall-type foundations are prohibited in VE zones, and structures within these zones are required to be supported by monolithic elements such as columns, piers, or piles. Slab-on-grade type foundations are not permitted in flood zones where the foundation will exist within the flood plain. (more…)
A lot of people own motorcycle(s). Not a lot of people have experience riding motorcycles. More people have motorcycles stored in their garages, covered with all kinds of things, than ride motorcycles. In a similar neglect, there are those people who take their motorcycle out occasionally but never really put the miles or hours on the bike. This means that most of the people that have registered motorcycles do not get a lot of “seat time”. This issue leads to collisions involving motorcycles that should not have happened for more than one reason. When it comes to collision reconstruction and investigations, “ride to live” takes on a whole different meaning. (more…)