Forensic Engineers and Consultants

Archive: Commercial

Heating System Losses: Part Two

Previously, Warren posted the first installment of a series on losses associated with heating systems.  The first article looked at central forced air furnaces.  This new article will look at a common form of supplemental or secondary heat, oil filled electric radiant heaters. These heaters are commonly used to provide extra heating in areas that are lacking in central heating capacity. Another rationale for their use arises from manufacturer’s claims that the portable heating units can lower your power bill.  This is based on Read More

How Long Before the Pipes Freeze?

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An unexpected severe winter freeze will remind many people and businesses that when water in a pipe freezes, the ice will expand and burst the pipe or pipe fitting.  Large losses will result from flooding when the temperatures rise.  Insulation will help, but not prevent freezing.  Insulation simply slows down the rate of heat loss.  The time of exposure to subfreezing temperature is an important factor.

The American Society of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Handbook of Fundamentals has a short entry on the topic (Chapter 23, page 23.5-6), which gives an equation for estimating the time that it will take an insulated pipe to freeze, Read More

T is for Temporary – Issues with Extension Cords and Other Temporary Wiring Applications

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Temporary wiring is just that….temporary, and is typically used for repair and maintenance projects.  In this blog I am going to discuss guidance offered by Article 590 of the National Electric Code (NEC), as well as some points to consider when using temporary wiring, including extension cords and holiday lighting.

Before each use, extension cords need to be inspected for visual damage.  Cords with cuts or splits to the insulation need to be discarded.  Cords with damage to the connectors, including those that feel loose when connected, need to be taken out of service.   Failure to properly select and use extension cords can have a catastrophic result.  Read More

Moisture Intrusion into Structural Reinforced Concrete

Scenario:  The owners of Jones’ Marine, a marina with a wharf structure on a tidal saltwater river, cater to the operators of ships, barges, and large yachts.  There are both diesel and gasoline fuel pumps at the edge of the wharf.  In addition, a large mobile crane for lifting the large vessels out of the water for maintenance is in service at the wharf.  This crane is driven out to the edge of the wharf deck suspended over the water, subjecting this deck and the structure beneath it to very high loading.  They purchased the property from its former owners about 10 years ago and are conscientious about maintenance and upkeep of their thriving facility.  They decide it is time to have a survey performed of the condition of the precast reinforced concrete piles and pile caps beneath and supporting the concrete wharf platform/deck.  They are alarmed at what is discovered by this survey:  Significant spalling Read More

Spontaneous Combustion…Is it hot in here or is it just me???

In the old-timey Fire Triangle, you have heat, fuel, and oxygen.  Get these three together in the right quantities, and you get fire.  What if the fuel provides its own heat?  That’s spontaneous combustion, or spontaneous ignition.  NFPA921 defines this as “initiation of combustion of a material by an internal chemical or biological reaction that has produced sufficient heat to ignite the material.” Read More

Shedding Some Light on Fluorescent Light Fixture Fires

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Lighting systems in buildings and other structures have undergone changes over the years.  Many of these changes have occurred as manufacturers have developed more efficient lighting methods.  Lighting loads can represent the largest category of electrical load in many buildings, thus improved lighting efficiency may significantly lower your power bill and can lengthen time between lamp changes. Read More

Structure Fires in Eating and Drinking Establishments

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Eating and drinking establishments see an average of 7,410 structure fires per year based on a 2017 report published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). The report analyzed available data from the U.S. Fire Administration’s National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) and the NFPA’s annual fire department survey for the years 2010-2014.

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Testing As Part of Gas Appliance Incident Investigation

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Equipment and appliances supplied with fuel gases like natural gas, propane and butane are a common and convenient part of most of our lives.  Such devices as gas grills and ranges, ovens, furnaces, space heaters and water heaters usually perform without incident.  However, when they malfunction the potential for incidents such as fires and explosions, carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and burn injuries may occur. These incidents may be due to design and manufacturing defects in the product, or improper installation or operation of the device.

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OSHA’s Process Safety Management – Is This Process Covered?

In February of 1992, the OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) standard was issued. The official title is: ‘Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals.’ As its title implies, not every facility is covered by this rigorous standard. A process must contain highly hazardous, as defined by OSHA, chemicals above a certain weight threshold, again defined by OSHA. Notice that this is a process by process determination, so there could be certain processes at a manufacturing facility that are not covered by this standard situated beside other processes that are.
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Boiler Blowdown – It’s Not a Dance Move

When thinking about the safe operation of boilers (and don’t we all?), several systems can readily be named; flame control, fuel/air ratio; steam pressure control, levels in the vessel, etc. What about the water? It seems so passive, as long as there is enough for level control, what’s the big deal? Well, it turns out, that as the steam produced by a boiler is used in the process, the condensate from that steam is returned to the boiler as feedwater. However, since 100% of the condensate is not returned, whatever solids had been in that water before it evaporated to form steam are left in the remaining water.  Fresh feedwater is added to maintain levels, but even fresh water contains some dissolved solids. So over time, the water in the boiler system gets saturated with all sorts of dissolved minerals.
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