Forensic Engineers and Consultants

Archive: Structural

Moisture Intrusion into Structural Reinforced Concrete

Scenario:  The owners of Jones’ Marine, a marina with a wharf structure on a tidal saltwater river, cater to the operators of ships, barges, and large yachts.  There are both diesel and gasoline fuel pumps at the edge of the wharf.  In addition, a large mobile crane for lifting the large vessels out of the water for maintenance is in service at the wharf.  This crane is driven out to the edge of the wharf deck suspended over the water, subjecting this deck and the structure beneath it to very high loading.  They purchased the property from its former owners about 10 years ago and are conscientious about maintenance and upkeep of their thriving facility.  They decide it is time to have a survey performed of the condition of the precast reinforced concrete piles and pile caps beneath and supporting the concrete wharf platform/deck.  They are alarmed at what is discovered by this survey:  Significant spalling Read More

Moisture Intrusion into Concrete Slabs-on-Grade

Scenario:  A young couple is excited about buying their first home.  They pick it out from a catalog of house plans from the developer of a new neighborhood in town.  It will be a brand new construction starter type bungalow home on a slab-on-grade foundation.  For a cost adder, which is considerable to them, they decide to upgrade the finished flooring from carpeting to hardwood laminate.  Unfortunately, after only a few weeks of residency, the hardwood planks begin to buckle and separate from the slab throughout the house.  They do not know what is causing it, or what to do to remedy it, Read More

Issues with Moisture Intrusion through Flashing into Wood-Framed Structures

Flashing is a hot-button topic amongst residential designers, builders, and claims adjusters alike. In fact, currently one of the most prominent construction defect claims that we see involves moisture intrusion around improperly flashed window openings in wood-framed structures. Other trouble spots include the roof penetrations at chimneys and vent pipes. Read More

Uplift and Shear Restraint Techniques for Residential Structures in Hurricane Wind Zones

Hurricane and Tropical Storm strength wind forces can wreak havoc on wood-framed residential structures.  One of the primary hazards is the negative pressures which can develop on the exterior building envelope when the structure is subjected to the high encircling winds.  These negative pressures act like the suction of a giant vacuum on a dwelling’s roof diaphragm, which produces enormous uplift forces throughout the entire structure.  The leeward walls are also subjected to negative pressures, while the windward walls take the brunt of the positive wind pressures.  The uplift on the roof is caused by what the author dubs “the airplane wing effect”.  In other words, Read More

Improper Hearth Extension Leads to Structure Fire

Author

The fire service affords you the opportunity to witness and observe things that a lot of engineers and even most people do not get the chance to see.  An example of this is the situation where extended elevated temperatures combined with poor construction techniques to result in a structure fire.

I have personally observed several occasions where a structure fire was initiated due to improper construction of the fireplace hearth extension.  The most recent one followed a multi-day cold snap, at least by South Carolina standards.  The thermometer read 17 degrees F as I drove to the call of smoke in a residence Read More

Proper Construction and Maintenance Can Prevent Deadly Chimney Fires

Author

There are few things as comforting to me during the winter months as a warm fire burning in the fireplace.  And in this case, I am talking the real deal, the kind that warms you multiple times; from cutting, splitting and stacking the firewood until finally lighting a fire in the fireplace.  However, just like your parents taught you, fire can be dangerous.  And having an actual fire in your home fireplace comes with some required maintenance to ensure you can safely control the fire and keep it where it belongs. Read More

What You May Not Know About Using a Concrete Test Hammer

Author

When assessing potential problems in concrete structures, consider a non-destructive test using the concrete test hammer, AKA “rebound hammer,” before investing a lot of time and money needlessly replacing or destructively testing the concrete structure.  The use of rebound hammer tests should be considered before you or your client decide to drill multiple core samples. Large areas of the concrete structure suspected of having potential strength problems can be tested quickly with a rebound hammer.  Analysis of those results can narrow down specific areas for more rigorous testing. Read More

Construction Techniques to Prevent Water Penetration at Windows

Author

Windows, and their interface with the exterior walls, are an important part of a building’s envelope that resists the intrusion of water. Most builders take many precautions to protect a house from water damage. One of the most important factors in keeping the water out is the installation of window flashing, a thin material that prevents water from seeping in around a window. Read More

Structure Fires in Eating and Drinking Establishments

Author

Eating and drinking establishments see an average of 7,410 structure fires per year based on a 2017 report published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). The report analyzed available data from the U.S. Fire Administration’s National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) and the NFPA’s annual fire department survey for the years 2010-2014.

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Why the Structural Load Path MUST be Considered During Renovation to Prevent Property Damage

Author

Understanding the structural load path is imperative when considering renovations in a home that may require the removal of a load-bearing wall. Some homeowners consider adding a new door or window opening and worry if the structure will collapse. Another reason could be that the owner wants an open concept floor plan. The goal is to remove walls and open their living space. Read More

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